For most children and young people, reading develops within expected progression through high quality learning and teaching. Their reading is increasingly fluent and their comprehension of what they read is good. For some, despite this progress, they may struggle with spelling. Reading works from the concrete (graphemes) to the abstract (phonemes). Spelling, however, works from the abstract to the concrete. Although spelling and reading are based on connected skills and concepts, there is little evidence to show that reading will help to improve spelling. However greater focus on spelling does help to improve reading and evidence does show that literacy in general does improve where reading, writing, talking, speaking and comprehension are connected.
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