Supporting children beyond the Early Level with gaps in foundational literacy skills

There are five broad clusters of skills that contribute to children’s success in literacy, language and communication. These are:

  • concepts of print
  • oral language
  • pencil control and pre-handwriting
  • phonological awareness
  • working memory and executive function.

Some children beyond Primary 1 may have gaps in foundational literacy skills. This may have an impact on their literacy, language and communication development. Practitioners can use the materials from the Emerging Literacy toolkit to provide targeted support matched to the child’s stage of development. In taking a developmental approach to literacy, language and communication, it may be appropriate to use the materials below alongside the resources in supporting persistent literacy difficulties.

Each of the developmental areas – Concepts of Print, Oral Language, Phonological Awareness and Pre-Handwriting – have their own tabs within the Emerging Literacy tab. Click the images below to access support materials for each of the areas.

Concepts of Print


Oral Language



Phonological Awareness


Pre-Handwriting Skills